Neurorehabilitation also called neurological or neurosurgical rehabilitation is the discipline devoted to rehabilitation in all fields of neurological abnormalities ranging from vascular over inflammatory to neoplastic and degenerative disorders. This field is now a subdivision of neurology or neurosurgery linking knowledge from the neurosciences with knowledge and skills from rehabilitative medicine and social sciences.

Over the last two decades this field has made a tremendous progress in parallel to the explosion of knowledge in the neurosciences. Today a point has been reached in which neurorehabilitation can be conceived as applied neuroscience made useful for the restoration of function in neurological disorders. Following this development in most European and many other countries specialized scientific societies have been founded addressing issues of neurorehabilitation. These are linked under the umbrella of the World Federation of Neurorehabilitation (WFNR) and recently also by a subdivision called European Federation of Neurorehabilitation Societies (EFNR).

These developments were paralleled by an increasing interest of neurologists and neurosurgeons in aspects of neurorehabilitation. In most countries today patients with neurological disorders who need rehabilitation are treated by specialized neurologists.