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Neurorehabilitation can be conceived as a truly scientific discipline: First it translates knowledge from the neurosciences into clinical practice of rehabilitation and secondly it has designed its own corpus of scientific activities. These span from elementary aspects of reorganization, repair and plasticity in the central and peripheral nervous system over design of clinical studies for evaluation of therapeutic approaches in the framework of evidence based medicine further to invention of new therapeutic procedures following elementary rules for of e.g. motor learning or learning in general.

In its scientific endeavors as well as in its day by day activities neurorehabilitation is as a multidisciplinary activity. Considering the fact that neurological abnormalities are multifold ranging from motor-sensory over cognitive, language and speech related problems to emotional problems such as depression after stroke or traumatic brain injury. Furthermore also the variability of conditions which are targets of neurorehabilitation span a wild field of different pathologies. Therefore the scientific strategies followed in neurorehabilitation are closely linked to the classical fields of the neurosciences as neuropathology, neurophysiology, neurochemistry and neuropharmacology but also encompass methods from behavioral and social sciences as psychology, neuropsychology and sociology. This is an extremely colorful and interesting spectrum of actives from all the many fields of neuro- and behavioral sciences to blend in knowledge, skills, concepts and ideas into neurorehabilitation.

Another upcoming important field in neurorehabilitation is the problem how to organize appropriate services for the population in various countries in order to achieve optimal processes for treatment taking into account the individual habits and individual clinical service systems of various civilization and countries.